Main Article Content

Khairul Azhar Idris
Abdul Latif Abd. Razak


Children with neurodevelopmental disorders are considered as individuals with special needs. They have multiple levels of severity such as cognitive functioning deficits, emotional hypersensitivity and behavioural problems. From the Islamic perspective, these children should be treated with dignity as they have their own rights and needs. Islam discourages any attempt to neglect and marginalise them based on their weaknesses and disabilities. This article will examine the Islamic approach in dealing with children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially those with cognitive functioning deficits.

Article Details

How to Cite
Idris, K. A. ., & Abd. Razak, A. L. . (2021). CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS FROM THE ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE. TAFHIM: IKIM Journal of Islam and the Contemporary World, 14(1).


Al-Aoufi, Hiam, Nawaf Al-Zyoud and Norbayah Shahminan. “Islam and the Cultural Conceptualisation of Disability,” International Journal of Adolescence and Youth 17, no. 4 (2012): 205–219, DOI:

Barbosa, Thais, Camila Cruz Rodrigues, Claudia Berlim de Mello, Maria Cristina de Souza e Silva and Orlando Bueno. “Executive Functions in Children with Dyslexia.” Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria 77, no. 4 (2019): 254–259. doi:–282X20190033.

Baron-Cohen, Simon. Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 1995.

Bondy, Andy and Lori Frost. “The Picture Exchange Communication System.” Behavior Modification 25, no. 5 (2001): 725–744. doi:

Casco, Cara and Elena Prunetti. “Visual Search of Good and Poor Readers: Effects with Targets Having Single and Combined Features.” Perceptual and Motor Skills 82, no. 3 Part 2 (1996): 1155–1167. doi:

Collins, Anne and Etienne Koechlin. “Reasoning, Learning, and Creativity: Frontal Lobe Function and Human Decision-Making.” PLoS Biology 10, no. 3 (2012): e1001293. doi:

Eack, Shaun M, Deborah P. Greenwald, Susan S. Hogarty, Amber L. Bahorik, Maralee Y. Litschge, Carla. A. Mazefsky, and Nancy J. Minshew. “Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of An 18-Month Feasibility Study.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 43, no. 12 (2013): 2866–2877. doi:

Electronic Daʿwah Committee. “Quran and People with Disabilities.” (2015).

Helland, Turid and Arve Asbjørnsen. “Executive Functions in Dyslexia.” Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence 6, no. 1 (2000): 37–48. doi:–7049(200003)6:1;1–B;FT037.

Hoogman, Martine, Janita Bralten, Derrek P. Hibar, Maarten Mennes, Marcel P. Zwiers, Lizanne SJ. Schweren, Kimm J E. van Hulzen, Sarah E. Medland, Elena Shumskaya, Neda Jahanshad, Patrick de Zeeuw, Eszter Szekely, Gustavo Sudre, Thomas Wolfers, Alberdingk M H Onnink, Janneke. T. Dammers, Jeanette. C. Mostert, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Gregor. Kohls, Eileen Oberwelland, and Barbara Franke. “Subcortical Brain Volume Differences in Participants with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults: A Cross-Sectional Mega-Analysis.” The Lancet. Psychiatry 4, no. 4 (2017): 310–319. doi:–0366(17)30049–4.

Ibn ʿĀshūr. Tafsīr al-Taḥrīr wa Tanwīr. Tunisia: Al Dar al Tunisiyyah, 1984.

Just, Marcel Adam, Vladimir L Cherkassky, Augusto Buchweitz, Timothy A Keller, and Tom M Mitchell. “Identifying Autism from Neural Representations of Social Interactions: Neurocognitive Markers of Autism.” PLoS ONE 9, no. 12 (2014): e113879. doi:

Matlin, Margaret. Cognition. Crawfordsville: John Wiley and Sons, 2005.

Neta, Maria de Lourdes Guedes and Cristina Varanda. “The Role of Mirror Neurons in Autism Impairment.” European Psychiatry 33, no. S1 (2016): S374–S375. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.01.1345.

Sergeant, Joseph A, Hilde Geurts, and Jaap Oosterlaan. “How Specific is A Deficit of Executive Functioning for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?” Behavioural Brain Research 130, no 1–2 (2002): 3–28. doi:–4328(01)00430-2.

Sternberg, Robert J., Cognitive Psychology. Ford Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999.

Willcutt, Erik G., Bruce F Pennington, Richard K. Olson, Nomita A. Chhabildas, and Jacqueline Hulslander. “Neuropsychological Analyses of Comorbidity between Reading Disability and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: In Search of the Common Deficit.” Developmental Neuropsychology, 27, no. 1 (2005): 35–78. doi:

Williams, Diane L., Gerald Goldstein, Patricia A. Carpenter and Nancy J. Minshew. “Verbal and Spatial Working Memory in Autism.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35, no. 6 (2005): 747–756. doi: