Islam and Democracy: A Study on Rachid Ghannouchi’s Views

Shakira Alisakun, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).


Abstract


The compatibility between Islam and democracy has become one of the main controversial issues of contemporary Islamic political thought. Rachid Ghannouchi has been recognised for his adherence to the concept of Islamic democracy. The purpose of this article is to examine the views of Rachid Ghannouchi towards Islam and democracy through a range of his writings and statements. As such, the research methodology applied is qualitative with data collection instruments. The article uses textual analysis to study how democracy is understood by Ghannouchi within an Islamic framework, along with his theory on the compatibility of Islam with democracy. The article has shown that he adopts a perspective of harmony between modern political thoughts and the original form of Islam as he proposes principles and characteristics of Islamic democracy. Islamic concepts such as shūrā, ijtihād, maṣāliḥ and values such as justice, freedom, and pluralism are discussed. Ghannouchi’s line of thought and its highlights are not free from critics from both the Islamic quarters as well as non-Islamists. Criticisms towards Ghannouchi as well as his responses are duly discussed.

Keywords


Islam, Islamic Democracy, Rachid Ghannouchi, Shūrā, Islamic Politics, Al-Dimuqratiyah fī al-Islām.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdulwahid Wafi, Ali. Ḥuqūq al-Insān fī al-Islām (Human Rights in Islam). Cairo: Dar Nahdat Misr, 1967.

Abedin, Mahan. Tunisia: The Advent of Liberal Islamism. An Interview with Rashid Al-Ghannouchi. London, 30 January 2011. Available online at https://english.religion.info/2011/01/30/tunisia-the-advent-of-liberalislamism-an-interview-with-rashid-al-ghannouchi/(accessed on 28 October 2019).

Abū Ishaq Al-Shāṭibī. Al-Muwāfaqā fī Uṣūl al-Sharīʿah (Analogies in the Foundations of Sharīʿah). Beirut: Dar Al-Kutub Al-’ilmiyah, n.d.

Abū Talib, Abdelhadi. al-Marjiʿ fī al-Qanūn al-Dustūr wa alMuʿassasāt al-Siyāsiyyah (Reference of Constitutional Law and Political Institutions). Casablanca: Dār āl-Kitāb, 1980.

Ali, Haydar Ibrahim. At-Tayyarāt al-lslamiyah wa Qaḍiyāt alDimuqaratiyah (Islamic Currents and the Question of Democracy). Beirut: Markaz Dirasat al-Wahdah al-ʿArabiyah, 1996.

Bennabi, Malik. Al-Qaḍayā al-Kubrā. Damascus: Dar Al-Fikr, 1991.

Cakmak, Cenap. Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia. California: ABC-CLIO, LLC 1.

Cox, Caroline and John Marks. The West, Islam and Islamism: Is Ideological Islam Compatible With Liberal Democracy? London: Civitas, 2003.

Donohue, John J. and John L. Esposito. Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Esposito, John L. ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

________. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

_______. “The Basic Principles of an Islamic State.” (Paper presented at the Symposium on Christian Islamic Dialogue, Germany, June 1994). (Extracted from Tamimi, Rachid Ghannouchi A Democrat within Islamism, p.101).

________. Al-Dīmuqrātiyyah wa-Ḥuqūq al-Insān fī al-Islām (Democracy and Human Rights in Islam). Doha: AlJazeera Center for Studies, 2012.

________. Al-Dīnī wa al-Siyāsī fī al-Islām (The Religious and the Political in Islam). Lecture at Cardiff Islamic Society, United Kingdom, January 1997.

________. “From Political Islam to Muslim Democracy: The Ennahda Party and the Future of Tunisia.” Foreign Affairs 95, No. 5 (September/October 2016).

_______. “Human Rights in Islam.” (Paper presented at the Symposium of the Association of Muslim in Birmingham, 1995).

________. Al-Ḥurriyat al-ʿAmmah fī al-Dawlah al-Islamiyah (Public Liberties in the Islamic State). Beirut: Markaz Dirāsāt alWihda aI-ʿArabiyah, 1993.

_______. “Islam and Freedom can be Friends.” The Observer (London), (19 January 1992).

_______. Muqarabāt fī al-ʿIlmaniyyah wa al-Mujātama’ al-Madanī. London: al-Markaz al-Maghāribī lil-Buhuth wa alTarjamah, 1999.

_______ . The Participation of Islamists in a Non-Islamic Government, trans. & ed. Azzam Tamimi. London: Liberty for Muslim World Publications, 1993.

Ghannouchi, Rachid. “Our View of Modernity and Democracy.” (Paper presented at the Symposium of Islam and Democracy in North Africa, London School of Economics, 29 February 1992). Extracted from Tamimi, Rachid Ghannouchi A Democrat, p.99.

Glassé, Cyril. Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. London: Stacey International, 1989.

Habermas, Jürgen. “Three Normative Models of Democracy.” Constellations 1, no.1 (1994).

Hasan, Mahmud Abdelkarim. “Radd Iftiraʿat ʿalā al-Imām al-Shāṭibī.” (Refuting False Allegations Attributed to Imam Ash-Shatibi) Al-Wa’y 88 (1995).

Huwaidi, Fahmi. Al-Islam Wad-Dimuqratiyah (Islam and Democracy). Cairo: Al-Ahram Translation and Publishing, 1993.

Keane, John. Introduction: Democracy and the Decline of the Left. Oxford: Polity Press, 1997.

Khan, Muqtedar. “Islamic Governance and Democracy.” In Islam and Democratization in Asia. ed. Shiping Hua. New York: Cambria Press, 2009.

Klevesath, Lino. Religious Freedom in Current Political Islam: The Writings of Rachid al Ghannouchi and Abu al-ʿAla Madi. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2014.

Kurzman, Charles. The Missing Martyrs: Why There are so few Muslim Terrorists. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Lubben, Ivesa. “Farewell to Political Islam?” 10th Conference of the Tunisian Ennahda Party Qantara.de, retrieved from https://en.qantara. de/content/10th-conference-ofthe-tunisian-ennahda-party-farewelltopolitical-islam. 2016. (Accessed on 16 June 2020)

Moten, Abdul Rashid. “Democratic and Shūrā-Based Systems: A Comparative Analysis.” Encounters (Kingston) 3, no.1 (March, 1997).

O’Leary, Brendan and Joanne McEvoy, Power Sharing in Deeply Divided Places. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

Parray, Tauseef Ahmad. “Islamic Democracy or Democracy in Islam: Some Key Operational Democratic Concepts and Notions.” World Journal of Islamic History and Civilization 2, no. 2 (2012).

_______. “Operational Concepts of Islamic Democracy—Khilāfah, Shūrā, Ijmāʿ, and Ijtihād.” Journal of Humanity & Islam 1, Issue 1 (2011).

Rahim Husein A. and Ali Mohamedjeffer Sheriff. Guidance from Qur’ān. Mombasa: Khoja Shia Ithna-asheri Supreme Council, 1993.

Schoburgh, Eris and Roberta Ryan. Handbook of Research on Sub-National Governance and Development. Hershey PA: IGI Global, 2017.

Shafiq, Muhammad. Islamic Concept of a Modern State. Lahore: Islamic Book Foundation, 1987.

Sulaiman, Sadek J. “Democracy and Shūrā.” In Liberal Islam: A Source Book, ed. Charles Kurzman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Tamimi, Azzam S. Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat within Islamism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1768.

Tyan, Emile. Encyclopedia of Islam. 2nd ed. Leiden: Brill, 1960.

Wadidi, Nur-ud-Din. “Taqdim Kitab al-Hurriyat al-’Ammah Fid-Dawlah al-Islamiyah.” Al-Insan 3, no. 13 (December 1994).

Wolf, Anne. Political Islam in Tunisia: The History of Ennahda. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Wright, Robin. “Islam and Liberal Democracy: Two Visions of Reformation.” Journal of Democracy 7, no. 2 (1996).

Zalloom, Abdul Qadeem. Democracy is a System of Kufr. It is Forbidden to Adopt, Implement or Call for It. London: Al- Khilāfah Publications, 1995.

Zawahiri, Ayman. Bitter Harvest: The Muslim Brotherhood in Sixty Years, trans. Nadia Masid. Cairo: unpublished, 1991.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.