State-NGOs Relationship and Development in Muslim Societies: A Preliminary Analysis on Political Space for NGOs in Malaysia

Enizahura Abdul Aziz

Abstract


Development of a country is a significant marker of the successful planning and implementation of policies by the government. It also shows the government’s ability to manage the country’s resource and wealth efficiently and effectively. The study on development has shown that the underlying perspectives that dominate the discussions on economics also determine the meaning and indicators for development. This article discusses the two central actors in development by looking at the relationship between state and NGOs in a Muslim majority society i.e. Malaysia. It looks at the pattern of the relationship through the political space allowed for NGOs to operate. An analysis on this suggests that political orientation of the NGOs and importance of state political survival shape the pattern of state-NGO relationship especially during the era of the government under Barisan Nasional (BN). This article argues that despite the legalistic and restrictive structure imposed on NGOs to mobilise, they are still considered the best partners for the government in meeting the goals of state development agenda.


Keywords


Development, development in Islām, state-NGO relationship, political space, legal framework, ABIM.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Askari, Hossein et.al. “Understanding Development in Islamic Framework,” Islamic Economic Studies 22, no. 1 (May 2014).

Azeem Fazwan Ahmad Farouk and Azrina Husin. “Development and Social Capital: A Case Study of Selected Malaysian Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs),” Kajian Malaysia 33, no. 2 (2015).

Clark, John. The Relationship between State and the Voluntary Sector. The Global Development Research Center (1993), http://www.globalpolicy.org/ngos/state/relationship.html.

Haji Abdul Halim Ismail. Gerakan ABIM dan Impaknya ke Atas Perubahan Sosio-Politik Masyarakat Malaysia. http://abim.org.my/minda_madani/modules/news/makepdf.php?storyiid=65.

Halperin, Sandra. “Development Theory.” Encyclopedia Britannica available at https://www.britannica.com/topic/development-theory.

Hassan, Saliha. “Political Non-Governmental Organizations: Ideals and Realities.” In Democracy in Malaysia: Discourses and Practices, ed. F. Loh and B.T Khoo. Surrey: Curzon, 2002.

Hurrel, Andrew, and Benedict Kingsbury, ed. The International Politics of the Environment: Actors, Interests and Institutions. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.

Imtiaz Omar. Rights, Emergencies and Judicial Review. Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1995.

Kaneko, Yoshiki. “Malaysia: Dual Structure in the State-NGO Relationship.” In The State and NGOs: Perspective from Asia, ed. Shinichi Shigetomi. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002.

Kurshid Ahmad. “Economic Development in an Islamic Framework.” In Studies in Islamic Economics, ed. Kurshid Ahmad. Leicester: The Islamic Foundation and Jeddah International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, King Abdul Aziz University, 1980.

Malena, Carmen. Working with NGOs: A Practical Guide to Operational Collaboration between the World Bank and Non-Governmental Organization (World Bank, 1995), http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/814581468739240860/pdf/multi-page.pdf.

Muhammad Shukri Salleh. “Philosophical Foundations of Islamic Development: Khurshid Ahmad’s Conception Revisited.” International Journal of Education and Research 1, no. 7 (July 2013).

Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. Development Theory. 2nd. ed. London: Sage Publications Ltd, 2010.

Riker, James V. “From Co-optation to Cooperation and Collaboration in Government-NGO Relations: Towards an Enabling Policy Environment for People-Centred Development in Asia.” Government-NGO Relations in Asia: Prospects and Challenges for People-Centred Development, ed. Noeleen Hyzer, James V. Riker & Anthony B. Quizon. Hampshire: MacMillan Press Ltd, 1995.

Sardar, Ziauddin. “Beyond Development: An Islamic Perspective.” European Journal of Development Research 8, no. 2 (1996).

Shigetomi, Shinichi. “The State and NGOs: Issues and Analytical Framework.” The State and NGOs: Perspective from Asia, ed. Shinichi Shigetomi. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002.

Sood, Priya. Flowing Upstream: The Case for Cooperative Efforts between NGO-State Relationships concerning the Drinking Water Crisis in Rural Gujarat (India). Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 2000.

Tan, Boon Kean and Bishan Singh. Uneasy Relations: The State and NGOs in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: APDC, 1994.

The Official Secrets Act, 1972, Act 88. http://www.agc.gov.my/agcportal/uploads/files/Publications/LOM/EN/Act%2088.pdf.

Weiss, Meredith L., and Saliha Hassan. Social Movements in Malaysia: from Moral Communities to NGOs. London: Routledege Curzon, 2003.

Weiss, Meredith L. “Malaysian NGOs: History, Legal Framework and Characteristics,” in Social Movements in Malaysia: from Moral Communities to NGOs. Ed. Meredith L. Weiss and Saliha Hassan. London: Routledege Curzon, 2003.

White, Sarah C. “NGOs, Civil Society and the State inBangladesh: The Politics of Representing the Poor,” Development and Change 30 (1999): 308.

Zaidi, S. Akbar. “NGO Failure and the Need to Bring Back the State,” Journal of International Development 3, no. 11 (1999).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.